Three quarters of the planet surface is covered in water but why is it that many people are having problems with water supply? And why is it that water is almost never readily available? Why do we have to pay for it?
Water is a basic substance that is needed in every aspect of living. But not all water in nature is suitable for every kind of usage. Human consumption of this liquid demands that it be free from too much mineral content and contaminants. A pathogenic bacterium when present in numerous populations in water samples causes various infectious diseases like diarrhea and cholera. Also water must be free from parasites that may cause infections.
Today, water is served in communities through pipelines but before water could be distributed in pipes leading to your homes, it undergoes filtration and purification. Your water may have a characteristic smell of bleach due to chlorine treatment. Chlorination kills bacteria and other microorganisms that cause foul odor and may lead to gastrointestinal infections. However, tap water may still contain other metal ions like sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium as well as phosphates and carbonates. Water purification in communities reduces contamination to safe levels but does not make water absolutely pure.
While you may not need water that is too pure, lots of companies do. Companies that work on chemical engineering, biochemical engineering, and pharmaceutical products demand water that has higher standards of quality than ordinary tap water.
In performing chemical experiments involving aqueous solutions, pure water gives the best results. This kind of water is usually called analysis water or laboratory water. This kind of water undergoes thorough purification process. Tap water contains dissolved organic and inorganic compounds whose amounts may be too low to affect the water taste but high enough to alter results of laboratory experiments and analyses. Water for such scientific purposes need to be free from bacteria, algae, inorganic salts, organic substances and other solutes. For instance, ordinary water has a concentration of salt that reaches 300 ppm in concentration. Although your taste buds do not detect this presence, some chemicals in the chemical laboratory do and they cause less than accurate results during chemical preparations and tests. Specifically that sample of water may have a conductivity of approximately six hundred microSiemens (600 μS/cm). Basically, that does not yield good results.
Pure water for laboratory works has conductivities of 1.0 μS/cm or less. This is because pure water is a poor electric conductor. The presence of impurities, especially inorganic salts that produce ions in water, increases the conductivity of the water. Thus, one way to assess the purity of water is through testing its electric conductivity. Another method measures the resistivity, which is just the opposite of conductivity. Resistivity is the property to resist the flow of electric current and, unlike the other, it is inversely proportional to the ion concentration (the amount of dissolved salts), such that the higher the amount of inorganic salts, the lower the resistivity; whilst the lower the amount of ions and salts, the higher its value. Resistivity and conductivity is important in testing the quality of purified and deionized analysis water for scientific use. The purer the water the higher is its resistivity and the lower is its conductivity.
Water treatment for such intensely delicate purpose requires several processes since there are several types of contaminants to be removed. Particles are removed through filtration or use of activated carbon (for absorption of colloidal particles) which remove large molecules dispersed in water. The finer particles can be separated from the sample through reverse osmosis. At the same time, reverse osmosis may also be effective in removing microorganisms, so does ultra-filtration and UV photo-oxidation. The process of deionization or demineralization separates unwanted inorganic solutes and ions from water. The result is sparkling clear water that surely costs higher than ordinary bottled water.
Article Source: http://www.abcarticledirectory.com
Jo is a writer for 'The-Water-Company.com' (www.the-water-company.com), a well-known UK based high quality water supplier for more than 30 years, providing products like deionized water and demineralized water to a wide range of customers in UK, Europe and the rest of the world. If your business has an Analysis water source needs or if you would like to find out more information on any qualifications and standard laboratory analysis findings for the different water products then take a look at The-Water-Company.com.
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